INTO 2015

sharing economy in tourism

8/9 october



As often discussed at the Seminar in previous years, new technologies have sparked a revolution in the tourism industry, not only from the traveller’s point of view but also in terms of tourism businesses and destinations.

This 10th INTO Seminar will be analysing the implications of the “sharing economy” and its relationship to tourism. The sudden emergence of different platforms has led to enormous changes in how we travel, not free of controversy, and the business generated through these platforms offers huge potential for growth.

On the 8th and 9th October, key themes relating to the sharing economy in the tourism industry will be addressed, such as the economic impact, different socio-cultural aspects, tourist behaviour, etc. Various examples of good practice in relation to different views on how to regulate tourist destinations will also be analysed.


October 8, 2015
8:30 h
8:45 h
Official opening
Sr. Biel Barceló Vice president and Regional Minister of Innovation, Research and Tourism of the Government of the Balearic Islands
9.15 h
Keynote speech: Sharing Economy in Tourism
Dr. Dianne Dredge Professor of the Department of Culture and Global Studies at Aalborg University – Copenhagen, Denmark

Abstract Dr. Dianne Dredge: The sharing economy, also known as collaborative consumption, is emerging as a major driver of structural change in many sectors of the economy, and tourism is amongst the most vulnerable of sectors. Airbnb and Uber are the most visible companies leading the charge, but sharing economy start-ups are growing faster than any other component of the global economy. With a reportedglobal flow into peoples’ wallets of over US$3.5 billion in 2013 and expected to grow at 25% per year to 2035, the sharing economy has been has been hailed as a significant disruptive innovation. Others argue that threatens to gut a wide range of economic sectors, it winds backconsumer protection mechanisms, and it challenges hard-won labour rights. What is clear from these debates is that the sharing economy is complex and ambiguous. A lack of clarity about what the sharing economy entails is hampering the design and develop effective targeted responses. This presentation will examine the drivers of the sharing economy, and it will map out the sharing economy distinguishing between altruistic forms of sharing and new developments in what might be more accurately called the “platform economy”. Future challenges and broad policy responses will be discussed.
10.00 h
Session I - Sociology: factors and trends in the behaviour of tourists in the sharing economy
Moderator: Dr. Szilvia Gyimóthy
Dra. Szilvia Gyimóthy Value Co-creation with neo-tribes. Associate professor of the Department of Culture and Global Studies at Aalborg University- Copenhagen, Denmark.
Dra. Mª del Pilar Leal The case of tourist guides. Director of Bachelor Programme in International Tourism at The Ostelea School of Tourism & Hospitality- Barcelona, Spain.
Mr. Ángel Mesado Best practices Airbnb. Head of Public Policy Spain&Portugal Airbnb

Abstract Dr. Szilvia Gyimóthy: The rapid growth of social media technologies, platforms and communities within the last decade has a significant impact on strategic market communications. As the boundaries between promotional communication and word-of-mouth become blurred, several scholars claim that we are on the verge of a communication paradigm shift. Customers and tourism organizations nowincreasingly co-produce information, knowledge and experiences on social media. However, these interaction opportunities are paved with challenges in terms of reduced control and delegation of responsibilities to customers.This presentation will shed light on the social world of virtual tourism communities and neotribes, and discuss particular the social dynamics, practices and valuesuniting their members. Based on empirical examples, perspectives and recommendations are offered how to involve virtual communities in value creation and collaborative communicative endeavours.

Abstract Dr. Mª del Pilar Leal: Tourism, as any other massive phenomenon has suffered a deep change tightly linked to social change, where internet and social media are playing an important role. New trends are appearing within the tourism/travel industry and leisure activity all over the world. In this open framework, the concept of a free tours where there is no set charge and tourists show their appreciation by leaving a tip to their tour guide is becoming increasingly popular across Europe and beyond.

Walking tours in cities result interesting for tourists because are an option for the different ways that people can travel and the kinds of experiences that they can have in the process. Therefore, the role played by tour guides as an interface between the host destination and its visitors is crucial for the tourism industry. They are very much responsible for the overall impression and satisfaction with the tour services offered by a destination. Free walking tours might fit in collaborative consumption definition since they might enhance the visitors' experience at a destination and their understanding of the destination and its culture in return of voluntary tips
Coffee Break
12.00 h
Session II – Development of the economic impact of shared tourism
Moderator: Dra. Marta Jacob
Dr. Joanna Drake Dr. Joanna Drake- Principal Advisor, Chair of Task Force on the Collaborative Economy, New Business Models and SME's. DG Internal Market, Industry and SME's, European Commission
Dr. Carl Henrik Marcussen Senior researcher at Centre for Regional and Tourism Research, Denmark

Abstract Dr. Carl Henrik Marcussen:

This presentation (and paper) includes a discussion about how to define and delimit the term “collaborative economy” or “shared economy” – using Danish holiday cottages as an example.

The economic impact of “shared economy” accommodation (and transportation) services can only be assessed in a meaningful way if the field of study can be defined and delimited - even in an operational way. -- It is discussed what part of the usage of holiday cottages (in Denmark) should be included in the context of the relatively novel term “shared economy”. Also, the relative volumes and values of the usage segments “own usage”, “usage by friends and relatives”, and “commercial letting” are stated. Commercial letting can be traditional channels (cottage letting agencies) or direct letting from cottage owners to tourists. Both the former and the latter use the internet as a sales channel, at least partly. Tenants may be domestic or foreign users. So, with these several distinctions, which segments would it be fair to include under the label “shared economy”? Currently, high profiled “shared economy” websites plays a minor role as a distribution or booking channel for holiday cottages in Denmark, but the size of the “shared economy” in this sector totally depends on what is included or not.
13.30 h
15.00 h
Workshop – Creating a business model based on the sharing economy
Workshop leaders: Dra. Ana Maria Munar / Dr. Dianne Dredge / Dr. Szilvia Gyimóthy
17.30 h
End of sessions
October 9, 2015
9.00 h
Session III – Developing, adapting and/or regulating shared tourism (case studies: Catalonia and the Balearic Islands)
Moderador: Dr. Juan Mulet
Adaption case study, Barcelona:
Dr. Marien André -Professor of Applied Economics at the University of Barcelona

Local experience-Bunyola City Council
Mr. Miquel Pasqual - Councillor of Economy, Treasury and Communication of Bunyola City Council

Dr. Juan Franch -Doctor Europaeus in Law, lecturer of Commercial Law and Touristic Contracting at the University of the Balearic Islands
Abstract Dr. Juan Franch The sharing economy, the use of the internet and apps to connect with consumers who are now becoming service providers is presenting major challenges and problems for legislators. In the tourism sector we are seeing new business models, implemented particularly in the areas of accommodation and transport, which are generating a significant volume of business. This creates a confrontation between traditional businesses and economies which a much slower legislative process will need to resolve. Unfair competition and the need for regulation and growth of the digital economy are the fundamental issues to be considered when initiating the legal analysis of the sharing economy. Because there is no doubt that the legislative framework for regulating Uber or Airbnb is inadequate. Countries are, however, taking a stance, sometimes putting limitations on these new models and on the promotion of the new economy.
10.30 h
Coffee break
11.00 h
Session IV- Towards sustainable shared tourism? Socio-cultural perspectives
Moderator: Dr. Ana Maria Munar
Governance: Dr. Dianne Dredge - Professor of the Department of Culture and Global Studies at Aalborg University – Copenhagen, Denmark..
Employment: Dra. Mª del Pilar Leal -The case of tourist guides. Director of Bachelor Programme in International Tourism at The Ostelea School of Tourism & Hospitality- Barcelona, Spain
Reputation of the destination based on the views of the tourists themselves: Dra. Bel Llodrà - Dr Bel Llodrà- Cyber-society coordinator of the BIT Foundation
Abstract Dr. Bel Llodrà Tourists and residents share tourist information on different web platforms. It has been proven that tourist information from the Web 2.0 is yet another source that influences the motivations for travelling to a tourist destination as well as the cognitive, affective and unique images of the destination. Tourist authorities no longer have a monopoly on the management of tourist information. On the other hand, they are also losing control of creating tourist products. No matter how many strict product and quality regulations there may be, web platforms are emerging that contribute to turning the residents themselves into the ones who create new tourist products, from accommodations to complementary products and services, in addition to the official products. One of the challenges is analysing whether the co-creation of tourist products has reached a critical mass or not, and how it can influence the image of a destination.
12.30 h
Round Table
Final conclusions and future trends
14.00 h
Close of seminar

The scientific committee

  • Dr. Marta Jacob

    Professor at the University of the Balearic Islands since 2009

    Dr. Juan Ignacio Pulido

    Director of the Laboratory of Analysis and Tourist Innovation (University of Jaen)

    Dr. Juan Mulet Meliá

    PhD in Engineering and a Master in Business Administration (MBA).

    Dr. Ana Mª Munar Chacártegui

    Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark

Dr. Marta Jacob
Professor at the University of the Balearic Islands since 2009
Previously, she has been full-time lecturer at the Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (1991-2000), partial-time lecturer at the University of the Balearic Islands (2000-2002), associate researcher at IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) from 2001 to 2002 and Assistant Professor at the University of the Balearic Islands (2002-2009). With a MA in Econometrics, University of Essex, and a PhD in Economics and Business Administration, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. She has been General Director of R+D+i of the Balearic Islands Government from 2004 to 2007. Her research areas include agricultural economics and tourism economics (especially, innovation activities in service and tourism sectors). Papers published in Journal of Agricultural Economics, Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Management and Tourism Economics and co-editor with Jafar Jafari of two books edited internationally within the Book Series: Innovation and Tourism. Connecting Theory & Practice. She has participated as a researcher in R&D projects of the CYCIT and VI Framework Programme as well as an expert in consultancy jobs.
Dr. Juan Ignacio Pulido
Director of the Laboratory of Analysis and Tourist Innovation (University of Jaen)
Dr. Juan Mulet Meliá
PhD in Engineering and a Master in Business Administration (MBA).
He has been Director of Telefónica’s Research and Study Centre, Assistant General Manager of Telefónica Investigación y Desarrollo S.A., Managing Director and CEO of Amper Programas de Electrónica y Comunicaciones S.A. and Managing Director of Cotec. He has worked as an Assistant Professor, a Professor and a Senior Lecturer at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, and as an Assistant Professor at the Universidad Carlos III of Madrid. He has been a member of the Industrial Research & Development Advisory Committee (IRDAC) and the European Research Advisory Board (EURAB) of the European Union, a Board Member of the Spanish Science and Technology Foundation (FECYT), a member of the Advisory Board of Telefónica I+D and a member of the Social Council of Farmandustria He has been a member of the Board of Directors of Axon Capital SGCR, where he was President, and of Intelsa, Comet, AT&T Microelectrónica de España and Amper Programas. He is currently a member of the Advisory Board for Science and Technology of the High Consultative Council of the Engineering Institute of Spain, a scholar at the European Academy of Sciences and Arts, and a trustee of IMDEANetworks and España Digital.
Dr. Ana Mª Munar Chacártegui
Associate Professor at Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Her research interests are in digital technologies, epistemology, higher education and gender. Grounded in critical scholarship, Ana's work on digital technologies establishes the foundations for the advancement of Critical Digital Tourism Studies while her papers on education examine the impact of global and regional policies in tourism education. Her latest publications focus on postdisciplinarity in knowledge production, novel approaches to integrate the field of digital technologies in the curriculum and gender equality in the tourism academy. She coordinates the action-based research project, “While Waiting for the Dawn,” which seeks to bring about change by empowering tourism women academics. A highly engaged scholar, Ana has occupied a series of recent and past positions in academic bodies. At her present university she holds board membership positions at the Diversity and Inclusion Council, the Association of Faculty Staff and the board of tutors for the Assistant Professors Pedagogical Programme. She is member of the Executive Committee of the Tourism Education Futures Initiative (TEFI), where she coordinates the Advocacy area, and board member of the annual International Seminar on Innovation and Tourism (INTO). Ana is also administrator of the online community "Women Academics in Tourism", a web platform founded by Dr. Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore to enhance awareness on gender related topics. She is the coordinator for Tourism and Hospitality of the B.Sc of Service Management and Business Administration at Copenhagen Business School and has extensive experience in curriculum and programme development. For her recent publications and current research projects see


    • Session I

      OCTOBER 8, 2015 10.00h
      Sociology: factors and trends in the behaviour of tourists in the sharing economy
    • Session II

      OCTOBER 8, 2015 12.00h
      Development of the economic impact of shared tourism
    • Session III

      OCTOBER 9, 2015 09.00h
      Developing, adapting and/or regulating shared tourism (case studies: Catalonia, Balearic Islands)
    • Session IV

      OCTOBER 9, 2015 11.00h
      ¿Towards sustainable shared tourism? Socio-cultural perspectives




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